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Table 4 Comparison of the baseline characteristics between retained and LTFU patients

From: Thirty-day clinical outcome of traumatic brain injury patients with acute extradural and subdural hematoma: a cohort study at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda

VariableCategoryRetainedLTFUChi-square (X2) p value
Count (%)Count (%)
SexMale90 (90.9)9 (90.0)0.924
Female9 (9.1)1 (10.0) 
AgeBelow 30 years50 (50.5)6 (60.0)0.567
30 years and above49 (49.5)4 (40.0) 
35–10014 (14.1)2 (28.6) 
> 10035 (35.4)2 (28.6) 
Marital status (n = 107)Single48 (49.5)7 (70.0)0.217
Married49 (50.5)3 (30.0) 
Cause of trauma (n = 107)RTA51 (52.6)6 (60.0)0.912
Assault35 (36.1)3 (30.0) 
Falls8 (8.2)1 (10.0) 
Others3 (3.1)0 (0.0) 
Who brought to hospital (n = 105)Police12 (12.5)4 (44.4)0.059
Nurse18 (18.7)0 (0.0) 
Well wishers11 (11.5)1 (11.2) 
Attendants55 (57.3)4 (44.4) 
Mode of arrival (n = 107)Ambulance37 (38.1)2 (20.0)0.293
Motorcycle6 (6.2)1 (10.0) 
Police pickup14 (14.4)4 (40.0) 
Private vehicle38 (39.2)3 (30.0) 
Public vehicle2 (2.1)0 (0.0) 
Pre-hospital treatment (n = 80)Oxygen11 (14.7)1 (20.0)0.340
IV fluids53 (70.7)3 (60.0) 
Mannitol4 (5.2)0 (0.0) 
Antibiotics2 (2.7)1 (20.0) 
Analgesia5 (6.7)0 (0.0) 
Total post resuscitation GCS (n = 106)Mild TBI54 (55.1)1 (12.5)0.043
Moderate TBI19 (19.4)2 (25.0) 
Severe TBI25 (25.5)5 (62.5) 
Pulse (n = 75) Mean = 84.9Mean = 108.20.024*
Oxygen saturation (n = 69)< 90%12 (18.5)0 (0.0)0.344
> 90%53 (81.5)4 (100.0) 
Systolic BP (n = 77)< 9017 (24.3)1 (14.3)0.551
> 9053 (75.7)6 (85.7) 
Pupillary size (n = 97)Equal2 (94.4)8 (100.0)0.789
Dilated right3 (3.4)0 (0.0) 
Dilated left2 (2.2)0 (0.0) 
VomitYes38 (38.4)5 (50.0)0.474
No61 (61.6)5 (50.0) 
ConvulsionYes24 (24.2)4 (40.0)0.277
No75 (75.8)6 (60.0) 
CSF leak (n = 101)Nose2 (2.1)0 (0.0)0.875
Nose and ears1 (1.1)0 (0.0) 
None90 (96.8)8 (100.0) 
Facial fractures (n = 99)Yes2 (2.2)0 (0.0)0.672
No89 (97.8)8 (100.0) 
Limb weakness (n = 98)Upper limb lift or right2 (2.2)0 (0.0)0.926
Lower limb left or right1 (1.1)0 (0.0) 
Both lower and upper limbs2 (2.2)0 (0.0) 
None neither upper or lower85 (94.4)8 (100.0) 
Type of surgery (n = 64)Craniostomy/burr hole1 (1.6)0 (0.0)0.875
Craniotomy56 (91.8)3 (100.0) 
Craniectomy4 (6.6)0 (0.0) 
Diagnosis madeASDH26 (26.3)3 (30.0)0.881
AEDH71 (71.7)7 (70.0) 
Both ASDH and AEDH2 (2.0)0 (0.0) 
Findings at surgery (n = 107)Subdural hematoma25 (25.8)3 (30.0)0.946
Epidural hematoma69 (71.1)7 (70.0) 
Contusion1 (1.0)0 (0.0) 
Others2 (2.1)0 (0.0) 
Post-operative care area (n = 106)ICU1 (1.0)0 (0.0)0.942
HDU10 (10.2)1 (12.5) 
Ward87 (88.8)7 (87.5) 
  1. *Italics signify p value from a student’s t test <0.05